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Traversing in Total Station
Traverse Method / Survey Traverse Procedure
Traverse Method / Survey Traverse Procedure Traversing is done by a theodolite by different methods. The measurement of the side s of a traverse is carried out with best kind of tape . the angles of at the ends of line are measured accurately or the bearings are measured
In a theodolite survey the angular measurement is done in the following two methods .
a) Measurement of angle
b) Measurement of bearing
Measurement of angles .
In this method the angle between two adjacent lines is measured directly . this method is adopted during the theodolite survey of a big region. In this method survey is conducted accurately . in this method the bearing of only first line is measured while the angles are measured fro the other lines . from the bearing of the first line and the angles of the other lines we can find out the bearing of the other lines .following methods are used to read angles in this method
1) Traversing by included angles
2) Traversing by direct angles
3) Traversing by defection angles
Traverse Method by included angles
This method is used for the area whose survey is to be done by making closed traverse . in this method the angle is read accurately by repetition method . only the bearing of the first line is read while the included angles of the consecutive lines are read . if the arrangement of the lines of traverse is clock wise then the external angles of the traverse are found out while if it is counter – clock wise , the included angles are find out . generally the survey of a closed traverse is carried out in counter-clockwise direction
Following method is used for theodolite survey for internal angles in the traverse survey ;
Theodolite is set at the first pint A of the traverse ABCDEFG . by setting of the theodolite is meant its centering leveling focusing et. Then the bearing of the first line AB is read with the help of compass fitted in the theodolite . to measure the angle HAB, the telescope is faced toward the pint H and back site is taken . after this the theodolite is turned clockwise and faced toward the pint b and fore-site is taken . the difference between these two readings gives the measurement of the angle difference between these two reading gives the measurement of the angle H A B , the process is repeated by changing the face of the theodolite . this process is done for each of the point of the traverse and the measurement of the angles is tabulated as follows.
Traverse Method by direct method
This method is used for and open traverse. This method is also called the angles to the right method the angle measurement in this method ranges from 00 t 3600
Following procedure is adopted according to this method of theodolite survey .
First of all theodolite is set at the first point of the first pint of the traverse . by the setting of the theodolite is meant its centering leveling and focusing etc. then the bearing of the first line AB is read . for reading the angle at B , theodolite is set at the point B, by turning the face of telescope toward A ,the back site at the pint B is taken after this the theodolite is turned clockwise and faced toward the point C and fore – site taken . the difference between these two readings gives the measurement of the angle ABC. The process is repeated by changing the face of the theodolite the average of these is taken . all angles of the traverse are read by this method.
Traversing by deflection angle
This method is used especially for an open traverse . this method is suitable for the survey of a canal rainway track and pipe lie etc . the deflection angle is the angle between a line and the extended adjacent line . these angles are read in clock-wise as well as couter-clock-wise direction . the angle measurement in this method ranges from 00 to 800. But generally such angles are less then 900 .if these angleare read in clockwise direction then the method is called the angle to the right method. While if these angle are read in counter-clockwise direction then the method is known as the angle to the left method .
Following method is used for theodolite survey
First of all theodolite is set at the first point of the traverse by the setting of the theodolite is meant its centering leveling and focusing . then the bearing of the first line AB is read . for reading he angle at B , theodolite is set at the point B and the face of theodolite is turned back to point A and the telescope is transited .at this the face of telescope is diverted to the line AB. Then the reading is taken . after this the theodolite is tuned clockwise and face upwards the next point C and reading is taken . the difference between two reading gives the measurement of the required deflection angle at B.. the process is repeated by changing the face of the theodolite. The average of these is taken . all angles of the traverse are read into his manner.
MEASUREMENT OF BEARING
In this method the bearing of all the lines are observed. This method is also know as fast needle method .following are three method for reading of bearing ;
1) To read bearing with transit of telescope .
2) To rad bearing without transit of telescope .
3) To read bearing by back-bearing method .
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